This information is intended to give you an understanding of what is taught in each year and how you can help your child.
Most of these ideas are very simple and many of you will be doing them already. However, if you are not, these skills will be of great benefit to your child.
Please try to make all of the activities fun and enjoyable and be sure to praise and encourage your child.
Basic Skills
By teaching your child some basic skills you will be helping their literacy, numeracy and independence thus raising their self – esteem and developing their confidence.
Please teach them:
to dress and undress, coping with fastenings
to say their name, address and telephone number
the sounds and names of letters of the alphabet
counting rhymes e.g. I,2,3,4,5,once I caught a fish alive, and counting everyday objects e.g. count out 4 plates for tea
the days of the week in the correct order, referring to what is done on that day. Sunday being the first day of the week
months of the year; draw attention to family birthdays, special festivals etc
how to tell the time. Start with o’clock and move on to half past. Use daily routines to highlight times e.g. 12 o’clock dinner time
the difference between left and right. Setting the table is a good activity for this
tie their shoelaces
Games
Children learn without realising it while playing games. They also need practice at taking turns and learning to win or lose.
Either commercial/shop bought or home made games can be used.
Examples:
matching games, matching pictures, colours, numbers or words
snap cards, dominoes, lotto games
I spy
Kim’s game (items shown to a child and covered, child to see how many items he/she can remember)
Guessing games e.g. how many apples do you think are in the bowl?
Board games, e.g. snakes and ladders
Puzzles, e.g. wordsearches, crosswords etc
Speaking and Listening
Encourage your child to talk to you, other children and other adults. This will help to develop their vocabulary, organisation, sequencing skills and confidence.
Encourage your child to:
pronounce words correctly
use full sentences in speech
sing songs and rhymes
talk about things they enjoy
retell well known stories
talk about family outings
talk about school
listen to stories and rhymes
answer questions about a story they have just heard, e.g. ‘Why was Little Red Riding Hood going to Granny’s house?’
listen to others speaking
take turns in a conversation
play listening games such as Lotto
follow simple instructions e.g. ‘put the cups on top of the cupboard’.
Reading

Don’t

Paired Reading
Paired reading is especially useful for parents and children to do at home. One child works alongside one adult. The adult and the child read the text aloud together. In this way the adult provides the child with a model of correct reading.
Procedures for Paired Reading
Please remember:
Children’s progress is uneven so one day your child may read fluently and the next day they may stumble over words.
Spelling
If your child asks you how to spell a word write it down and encourage them to:
LOOK at the word
SAY the word
COVER it up
WRITE it down
CHECK if it is right
PRAISE ALL EFFORTS
If it is right: encourage them to use the word regularly and correctly
If it is wrong: praise the effort and encourage them to practise until they get it right
LOOK  SAY – COVER  WRITE  CHECK
Repeat this every time your child asks to spell a word.
Writing
Encourage your child to:
hold a pencil correctly
experiment with pencils, pens and crayons
draw, paint and colour
keep within the lines when colouring
trace over pictures, letters, numbers and words
form letters and numbers correctly (please see letter formation sheets – one for right handed children, the other for those who are left handed
always write from left to right
have a go!
Mathematics
Talk to your child, use the language of numbers, shape, size, position, time and money as you go about your daily life.
Help them to:
begin to recognise number words and symbols and to understand how to use them to count
understand and use comparing words like “less”, “more”, “smaller”, ”heavier”
put things in order and use words like “first”, “second”, “before”, “next”
learn words of position like “left”, “right”, “top”, “below” “in front”
make patterns and talk about how they do it
Meal times
Suggested questions and tasks:
Do we need small plates or big plates?
Please give a knife and fork to each person.
Have we got enough biscuits to have two each?
Will this glass hold more drink than that one?
At the supermarket
Please put three grapefruit in the basket.
We need the biggest size of cornflakes.
Are there more people in this queue than in that one?
Is this tin heavier than that one?
Helping your child in Year 1 or Year 2 (Classes 1 to 4  age 5 to 7)
In these years, your child is likely to learn to:
count up to 20, and then on to 100 and more
read and write these numbers and put them in order
know the pairs of numbers which add up to 10, like 1 and 9, 4 and 6
add and subtract numbers less than 10 in their head, going on to do the same with numbers to 20
double and halve numbers to 20 and beyond
know the 2 and 10 times tables, and others up to 5x5
recognise and name common shapes like the square, circle, cube and cylinder
compare the lengths, weights, capacities of objects, and later be able to measure using meters, centimetres, kilograms and litres
recognise coins to £1, find simple totals and give change
The really important things in these years are:
for children to do their number work with actual objects until they can do the sums in their head
for them to learn to work as much as possible out in their heads
for the children to use the facts they know to help them work out new answers. For example:
7+7 is 14, so 7+8 must be 15
you can work out double 13 by adding double 10 to double 3
Each of these skills comes best from lots of talking and explaining through practical examples.
Helping your child in Year 1 or Year 2 (Classes 1 to 4  age 5 to 7)
In these years, your child is likely to learn to:
The really important things in these years are:
you can work out double 13 by adding double 10 to double 3
Each of these skills comes best from lots of talking and explaining through practical examples.
Helping your child in Year 3 or Year 4 (Classes 5 to 8 – age 7 to 9)
In these years your child is likely to learn to:
The really important things in these years are:
For children to use the facts they know to work out new answers. For example:
There are many ways to work out 43+28 in your head. One way is to add 40+20 to get 60, then add on the 3 and 8. Another is to add 20 to 43 to get 63, move on to 7 to 70 and a final 1 to get the answer 71.
Similarly, a child might do 6438 by counting on from 38
To work out 5x13, say “I know 5x10 is 50 and 5x3 is 15, so the answer is 65.”
Helping your child in Year 5 or Year 6 (class 9 to 13 age 9 to 11)
In these years, your child is likely to be working on:
The really important things in these years are:
for children to grow in confidence in sorting out what to do and how to do it when they are faced with a problem is
1. for the children to begin to see connections, for instance that:
2. for children to have many opportunities to use their maths at home, at the shops, on trips and visits and to see numbers and shape, and measurement and graphs at work in the world around them
Tables
Help your child to learn to use the patterns in the tables. Help them to use the table facts they remember easily to get to those which are harder:
once they know the 2 times, 5 times, 10 times and 3 times tables, they can quickly reach the others and learn them:
for example
“two sevens are 14, so four sevens will be twice 14”
2x7 = 14 so 4x7 will be twice 14
“five fours (four fives) are twenty – 5x4 and 4x5 = 20 – seven fours are 8 more, that is 28”
Helping your child in Year 3 or Year 4 (Classes 5 to 8 – age 7 to 9)
In these years your child is likely to learn to:
understand and use numbers to 1000
know all the addition and subtraction facts to 20 e.g. 5+7 = 12 or 183 = 15
work out sums such as 43+28 and 6421 and later 6438 in their head
extend mental methods to work out sums like 145+283 and 365192 on paper
know the 2, 5 and 10 times tables, and later tables 3 and 4
multiply by 10 and 100
multiply and divide numbers up to 100 by 2,3,4,5,10 and understand remainders
begin to understand and use simple fractions such as
begin to understand decimals through their use in money and measurement, e.g. £3.47 or 5.19m
tell the time to the nearest minute
recognise and use properties of shapes such as symmetry, right angle, lengths
use and interpret simple graphs
The really important things in these years are:
For children to use the facts they know to work out new answers. For example:
There are many ways to work out 43+28 in your head. One way is to add 40+20 to get 60, then add on the 3 and 8. Another is to add 20 to 43 to get 63, move on to 7 to 70 and a final 1 to get the answer 71.
Similarly, a child might do 6438 by counting on from 38
To work out 5x13, say “I know 5x10 is 50 and 5x3 is 15, so the answer is 65.”
Helping your child in Year 5 or Year 6 (class 9 to 13 age 9 to 11)
In these years, your child is likely to be working on:
tables up to 10x10, and using what they know to help multiply and divide bigger numbers in their head and on paper
understanding decimals (for instance that 1.07 is one and seven hundredths) and using them, particularly in measurement
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with decimals, often in measurement or money
how and when to use a calculator; understanding the answers they get and checking that they make sense
simple problems about ratio, such as “you need 2 eggs, 300ml milk and 240g flour to make pancakes for 4 people. What do you need for 6?”
beginning to understand simple percentages, for instance that 10% of £25 is £2.50
how to estimate answers, for instance that the cost of 29 calculators at £3.95 each will be roughly 30x£4 = £120
measuring angles with a protractor
working out the areas of simple shapes like rectangles and triangles
collecting numerical information and putting it into tables, graphs and charts
The really important things in these years are:
for children to grow in confidence in sorting out what to do and how to do itwhen they are faced with a problem
for children to begin to see connections, for instance that:
addition ‘reverses’ subtraction, or multiplication ‘undoes’ division
fractions, decimals, ratios and percentages are just different
ways of saying the same thing
for children to have many opportunities to use their maths at home, at the shops, on trips and visits and to see numbers and shape, and measurement and graphs at work in the world around them
Tables
Help your child to learn to use the patterns in the tables. Help them to use the table facts they remember easily to get to those which are harder:
you can always say it the other way round – three eights are 24, so are eight threes
3x8 = 8x3
children usually find facts like six sixes (6x6)= 36, seven sevens (7x7) = 49 are easily learnt by their sound. Use them to reach others – for instance eight sixes will be six sixes and two more sixes: 8x6 will be 6x6 and 2x6: 36 +12 is 48, or eight sevens will be seven more than 49
once they know the 2 times, 5 times, 10 times and 3 times tables, they can quickly reache the others and learn them: for example